Global Report on Results

2015

WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE

A young boy is demonstrating right method of hand-washing in Naushero Feroze, Pakistan. Photo: Margrethe Volden/Norwegian Church Aid

WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE

Overall goal: Improved access to water and sanitation, enabling a good environment for improved hygiene for poor and marginalised communities.

Summary of main achievements compared to overall goal

In 2015, NCA ensured access to safe water for about 945,103 people and supported the establishment of 566 water committees which were trained to manage communal water schemes. This is a fundamental step towards sustainable water services. In a few countries, members have also learned negotiation skills, giving them the confidence to negotiate with local authorities and service providers. NCA secured access for 24,420 people to toilets in their own homes through community mobilisation. Such household sanitation facilities mean comfort, privacy and dignity for the female and male users. NCA also provided WASH services in schools providing 19,771 children with improved sanitation facilities, water supply and hygiene behaviour education. This was achieved through infrastructure development and the establishment of school hygiene clubs and other child-focused participatory activities. NCA also increased the knowledge and awareness of safe hygiene behaviour amongst marginalised people. All NCA focus countries’ water supply and sanitation projects were complemented with hygiene promotion activities, and in three focus countries NCA carried out more comprehensive behaviour change programmes reaching about 270,000 people. The WASH programme was implemented in the following countries in 2015: Afghanistan, Angola, Burundi, DR Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Pakistan, Somalia, South Sudan, and Sudan.

Contents

Strengthening civil society
Selected Results
Deviations and lessons learned
Results per Global Outcome

STRENGTHENING CIVIL SOCIETY

Water committees ensure fair distribution of water resources

When implementing communal WASH projects, NCA aims to both deliver a service and develop local civil society structures. Longer-term functional water infrastructures are more likely to be achieved if all the women and men in a community participate in decision-making. This is why all NCA water projects start with community mobilisation and empowerment of a WASH committee.

NCA uses different tools for community mobilisation. For example, the REFLECT method is applied in DR Congo. Results of this approach include election of a committee that represents the community and the community contributing to capital costs or a community action plan. Many communities contribute to capital costs with their labour or locally available materials, while others contribute with money. In the case of NCA’s projects in the Sindh province, Pakistan, the communities develop village development plans (153 plans in 2015) before they start to improve water supply. To ensure potential water resources or water supply conflicts are addressed early, community mobilisation processes must ensure the involvement of the whole community including women’s groups, youth and children, poor and rich, and leaders.

WASH committees play a central role in managing the water, and sometimes sanitation, infrastructure. The committee is accountable first and foremost to the community, but also to the authorities. NCA also enables water committees to demand better public services from the government. NCA’s role is to develop a process that the community can use to establish and run a committee; facilitate the formation of the committee; train the members; follow up of the committees after project completion; and sometimes to broker between committees and authorities. The committee’s task is to collect and manage water consumer fees, and organise the maintenance and repair of the infrastructure, often with local service providers, or authorities. In some countries the committee also has a role in securing environmental sanitation in the communities, such as in Angola where NCA trained 42 women and 22 men to work with household sanitation. The water committee normally has between five and ten members (up to 15 in Sudan) each with different tasks such as chairperson or treasurer. During community mobilisation and the formation of committees, NCA stresses the importance of equitable representation by women and men. In South Sudan NCA trained 54 committees with 133 men and 191 women. In cultures where gender-mixed committees are not permitted (such as in parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan), NCA encourages the establishment of separate committees for women and men. In 2015 in Pakistan, NCA facilitated a total of 100 women’s and men’s committees in two projects. Normally each water point or scheme has one committee, and in 2015 NCA has facilitated and trained 566 water committees, with about 5,000 people, in the 11 countries where we implement WASH projects.

Selected Results

Communities protected against disease through hygiene promotion and sanitation facilities and services

WHY: Unhygienic conditions and practices contribute to a household’s disease burden, with major impacts on health and well-being as well as economic and social development. Defecation in the open and the transmission of pathogens via hands, food or water are some reasons for transmissible diseases. Underlying causes are many including lack of household and institutional toilets and no hand washing with soap. Sanitation is fundamental for human survival and for leading a life in dignity. As a consequence, the United Nations recognised sanitation as an essential component of the right to an adequate standard of living and as human right in 2010. Governments in many countries have also recognised this right through national policies, strategies and financing mechanisms.

WHAT: Methodologies used by NCA to create awareness and consequently behaviour change towards safe hygiene and to increase demand for sanitation facilities at the household level include home visits, campaigning, and use of religious and community leaders. Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS), and Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) are two well-known participatory approaches used. NCA also started a social marketing pilot for sanitation facilities in two countries.

RESULTS: In 2015, NCA’s WASH programme helped 24,420 people gain access to toilets in their own home, either through the construction of facilities or, more often, through community mobilisation along with support from local markets and sanitation services providers. All NCA WASH focus countries included a hygiene component in their WASH programmes. In three focus countries, NCA carried out more comprehensive behaviour change programmes reaching about 270,000 people. As part of an overall school WASH programme, NCA also worked with girls and young women to improve menstrual hygiene management.

By training 142 hygiene promotors with the PHAST approach, NCA Somalia helped an estimated 18,360 men and 22,440 women to improve their hygiene practices. The hygiene promoters disseminated messages about the importance of safe hygiene practices in relation to food, water, and environment, in addition to domestic and personal hygiene. They demonstrated how hand washing with soap or ash at four critical moments reduces opportunities for disease transmission, and distributed soap to 7,675 internally displaced persons (IDP) households to support good hygiene behaviour.

Also in Somalia, personal hygiene during menstruation was improved for 946 school girls and 3,041 women through the distribution of menstrual hygiene materials (sanitary kits). For the girls, this also meant continued school attendance and for the women uninterrupted economic activities - important given the majority are bread winners in their families.

NCA also provided WASH services in schools and health institutions. In schools, NCA supported the establishment and development of “hygiene clubs” where trained teachers lead a group of volunteer children who promote hygienic practices to their fellow students through a child-focused participatory approach. For instance in Burundi where NCA implemented a UNICEF-funded WASH in schools project, NCA constructed 120 toilets and 47 handwashing facilities in 10 schools in Kirundo province and constructed 38 rainwater harvesting schemes with 20m³ tanks each. Additionally, NCA trained 600 children and teachers to establish school hygiene clubs. The clubs organised outreach activities to promote safe hygiene practices to their fellow pupils reaching about 7,000. As a result, pupils are no longer defecating in the bush as 10-year old Claude expressed with great relief: “Bari baraduhevye, ariko ubu ndanezerewe cane kuko nshobora kuja mu kazu ka surwumwe nk’abandi bana, atari mw’ishamba.” (Kirundo language) ”We were so abandoned but now I am so glad that I can go to a toilet like other children and not in the bush.”

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NRK Telethon brings safe water to nearly 186,000 people in one year

WHY: Fetching water from distant sources is labour-intensive, poses health and safety risks, and can further reinforce existing unequal relations between men and women – as women and girls are usually responsible for meeting household water needs. Time spent on this task means less time spent in school, on other productive activities, or on leisure or social activities.

WHAT: NCA supported the access to water services in countries with often weak institutions, or in conflict situations. NCA frequently engaged with authorities by building their capacity, through technical and other training, and through lobbying. NCA enabled communities to negotiate service delivery from authorities by working with communities on self-empowerment, and raising their awareness of their rights.

RESULTS: NCA was awarded the Norwegian Broadcasting Service (NRK) Telethon in 2014, which allowed NCA to raise funds to provide “Water for One Million People”. In its first year of implementation, NCA has been able to deliver water services to marginalised communities in 10 countries.

NCA Afghanistan and partners constructed 14 water supply schemes providing water for 11 communities. NCA conducted joint trainings for the water committees and local authorities, in order to clarify the role and responsibilities during implementation and after the completion of the project. The training helped to create an environment of trust between the water committees and the local authorities.

In Tanzania, NCA worked through four partners in eight districts to implement WASH projects. One of these projects installed a solar-powered electrical pumping scheme in Manguri, supplying water to 1,820 people, a primary school, a secondary boarding school and a health post. Manguri is known for being the home of Agnes Paulo (12 years old), one of the main faces of the Telethon fundraiser.

She says: “Before the Telethon project I used to walk for about seven kilometres to fetch water for cooking, drinking and other domestic chores. Now, I and other children and the entire community can get water near our homes. We are very happy accessing water closer to our houses, because it has reduced our burden and given us time for schooling and leisure activities. Also through the project children and other people in Munguli village are enjoying clean and safe water compared to previous water sources which were dirty and contaminated.”

In an unusual move by a 12-year old Tanzanian girl, Agnes finalised her story by requesting local leaders from her village to maintain and protect the water project for current and future generations

 

DEVIATIONS AND LESSONS LEARNED

2015 marks the completion of both NCA’s 2011-2015 strategic period and the global Millennium Development Goals. Through its WASH programme, NCA has made a small contribution towards reaching the MDGs by providing around five million people with access to water, contributing to protecting their health and promoting development.

During the 2011-2015 strategy, all NCA country WASH programmes delivered at least basic water supply services which were managed, operated and maintained by functioning water committees. All programmes also integrated essential components to enhance sustainability of the infrastructure including appropriate technology, water committees, access to spare parts and skilled mechanics.

Numerous lessons can be harvested from the last five years of implementing this global programme. Firstly, to improve health outcomes, a stronger integration of the various elements the WASH programme is needed by strengthening both the hygiene and household sanitation components. Innovative approaches, including increased engagement with the private sector and the market, will be key to this process in coming years. Secondly, sustainability of services and behaviour is increasingly critical in ensuring community and institutional resilience. NCA has gained extensive experience using practical approaches and tools to safeguard sustainability, and will continue to work with communities to utilise these and discover new ones. NCA will also develop better ways to capture lessons learned and share these within forums and with partners. The focus on building capacity of all NCA and partner staff will continue as this is key to ensuring quality results in the communities. The 2011-2015 programme has shown NCA that we still have work to do in enabling people to access improved household sanitation and adapt good hygiene behaviour. Finally, there is a need to strengthen the links between humanitarian responses and long-term interventions in WASH, because emergency responses normally necessitate rehabilitation and longer-term interventions.

RESULTS PER GLOBAL OUTCOME

OUTCOME 1: Rights-holders are mobilised to negotiate conflicting interests of fair management of vulnerable water resources

Achieved in Afghanistan and Sudan where WASH committee members and community leaders were trained in conflict resolution. In Daikundi province, Afghanistan WASH committees handled four conflicts about water distribution and the siting of tap stands.

OUTCOME 2: Rights-holders’ organisations have the capacity for management of sustainable community water supply and sanitation services

Achieved in all 11 WASH country programs by supporting the establishment and development of 566 water committees. The committees were established (under local institutional regulations and mechanisms) and members trained to manage each water point/system and communal/public sanitation infrastructure.

OUTCOME 3: Duty bearers are influenced to deliver on the right to water and sanitation services

Achieved in South Sudan, Sudan, Pakistan, Burundi, Somalia and Haiti. NCA WASH programs used their available resources and capacity to influence duty bearers through lobbying, capacity building and mobilisation. Rights-holders also learned to negotiate with duty bearers to improve WASH services.

OUTCOME 4: Achieved to varying degrees in Burundi, Somalia, Angola, Ethiopia and Haiti along with several other country programs which hadn’t chosen the outcome in their programmes. Hygiene promotion, as part of WASH in schools projects, was conducted through ‘hygiene clubs’ for children in Haiti, South Sudan, Tanzania and Burundi.

OUTCOME 5: Service providers have the capacity for accountable and inclusive WASH services delivery

Achieved in Afghanistan, South Sudan and Somalia. Under WASH projects, NCA Afghanistan and South Sudan trained decision makers and technical staff of the provincial water offices resulting in more competent local authorities.

OUTCOME 6: Rights-holders have access to adequate, appropriate, acceptable and sustainable sanitation services in public institutions and households

Achieved to varying degrees in the nine NCA WASH country programs which selected this outcome. In Burundi, Sudan, South Sudan, Haiti, Tanzania and Ethiopia, 19,771 pupils gained access to NCA constructed school toilets with handwashing facilities. In DR Congo and South Sudan, NCA constructed sanitation facilities and water supply in health institutions. NCA also worked on household sanitation in nine countries, providing approximately 24,420 people with access to toilets at home.

OUTCOME 7: Rights-holders have access to sound sustainable water supply services

Achieved in all NCA WASH country programs: Sudan, Burundi, DR Congo, Somalia, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Angola, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Haiti. About 945,000 people gained access to at least basic water service level during 2015. The establishment of the water committees has contributed to the sustainability of this service.

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