Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

Overall Goal: Healthy communities access equitable and sustainable water, sanitation and hygiene services.

Problem analysis: Despite some progress made in the years approaching the Millennium Development Goal target year of 2015, many governments are still struggling to deliver water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services to all their citizens. Access to safe water, adequate sanitation facilities, practicing key hygienic behaviours and living in a ‘‘clean’’ environment is a fundamental pre-condition for people’s health and social and economic development. The lack of such conditions particularly exposes children and people with a reduced immune system to the threat of transmissible diseases such as diarrhoea, typhoid and other diseases. Today, un-hygienic conditions cause the death of 1.8 million children due to diarrhoea and other water related diseases 21. Disparities of access to WASH services are due to geographic, economic and socio-cultural inequalities.

The WASH programme of NCA Angola was under the global Climate Resilience programme for the period 2015-2017. The results of NCA Angola’s WASH programme are part of this report.


Implementing Countries

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Our results

Outcome 1

Communities demonstrated ownership for WASH services

Community mobilisation is one critical aspect for sustainable service delivery, instilling a sense of ownership by community members towards the infrastructure that provides services, while contributing to empowerment. The degree to which a community is mobilisedthrough contribution of labour or materials, can also indicate the level of demand and ownership in a community.

Outcome 2

Duty bearers integrated men and women’s recommendations into their plans 

NCA and partners enabled rights holders to engage with duty bearers on service delivery, while also providing technical training to government officials in WASH-related issues. Over the reporting period, NCA and partners facilitated 633 meetings between rights holders and local government where citizens presented needs and priorities on WASH issues. 

Outcome 3

Women, men, boys and girls practiced hygiene measures that protect against key public health risks 

NCA and partners seek to engage rights holders in adopting safe hygiene methods in order to block routes of infection. At the baseline, data indicated that rates of handwashing with soap (HWWS) ranged from 15% in Pakistan to 34% in Afghanistan.

Outcome 4

Women, men, boys and girls accessed adequate and sustainable sanitation services in their household 

For the period 2016-2018, an average of 79% of the targeted population was satisfied with their household sanitation facilities. A total of 822,703 rights holders gained access to sanitation facilities during the 2016-2018 reporting period.

Outcome 5

Women, men, boys and girls accessed inclusive, adequate and sustainable WASH services in public institutions

Institutional WASH services comprise access to water and sanitation services in public institutions like schools, health centres and other public institutions like public markets and provision of hygiene promotion. Equitable access to public water and sanitation services for people living with disabilities (PLD) is an important issue for inclusion.

Outcome 6

Rights holders accessed sustainable, sound and a minimum of basic water supply services for domestic and productive purposes

The countries reported having delivered at least basic water services to 3,104,145 people over the last three years. The top contributor was Sudan that reported having delivered water services to 949,647 people.

Key innovations from the programme area

The main innovation within the WASH programme was the introduction and use of solar electric water pumping. This was done in Afghanistan, Angola, Burundi, Ethiopia, Mali, Pakistan, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania and Zambia. During the past few years, there has been a global reduction of prices for solar electrical equipment for water pumping. This has made it possible for solar electrical equipment to become a technological alternative to other small and large-scale water pumping options like diesel driven generator sets or hand pumps. The capital investment of a ‘‘solar pump’’ is higher than the alternatives, but operational and maintenance costs are lower. After about 3 years of use, the solar system ‘‘breaks even’’ with diesel driven alternatives and is thereafter cheaper in view of live-cycle costing. 

During the 2016-18 reporting period NCA and its partners constructed 156 solarized water pumping stations. The countries with the most solar pumps were Afghanistan (52), Sudan (41), Somalia (22) and Mali (21). NCA had begun constructed solar pumping stations before the reporting period started in Sudan. In the period 2006-2015, NCA constructed 70 solar pumping stations. In 2019, NCA implemented or will construct 93 solar pumping stations. This means that NCA constructed at least 319 solar powered pumping stations in the period 2006-2019. Assuming that each solar pumping station provides water to 2,000 people, then NCA would have reached about 638,000 people. 

Lessons Learned and Adaptation

Many communities demand water, sanitation and hygiene services. Women and girls benefit relatively more from improved WASH services than boys and men, since they often have the traditional role of water provider and are more bound to domestic chores than men. In many cultural settings, women are restrained to realise their rights of participation and decision making about issues that impact their lives. NCA Ethiopia recognised that community mobilisation for WASH services and the facilitation of WASH committees is an effective tool to promote women’s social status. Surveys suggest that women’s participation in committees reached a rate of 46%.

Results case

Public-Private Partnership (PPP) management of water utilities.

NCA Somalia facilitated a public private partnership (PPP) for water services in four towns reaching over 118,000 people.