Global Report on Results
An ex-circumciser displays the thorns used while carrying out “Infibulation” the most severe form of female genital mutilation, mostly prevalent in Afar and Somali region. Photo: Hilina Abebe/Norwegian Church Aid
Overall goal: Men and women are mobilised and act together to address harmful practices encouraging gender-based violence (GBV).
In 2015, 918,060 rights-holders (504,495 women, and 382,495 men)9 gained knowledge about the right to live a life free from GBV.
The programme achieved its goal by reducing various forms of GBV in the countries listed below. By challenging women and men to change social norms and practices that uphold GBV, even those forms not perceived as violence were addressed. Special efforts were taken to engage faith actors and religious leaders. The programme used multiple approaches and mobilised various stakeholders to break the silence around GBV, reduce stigmatisation, provide services to GBV survivors, empower girls and women, engage men to adopt positive masculinities, provide theological reflection tools, and advocate for law enforcement.
A majority of NCA’s work takes place in conflict and post-conflict settings, where girls and women experience increased GBV and impunity. The expertise that NCA and partners have developed in combating this secured new grants for the programme in 2015. These include a new three-year framework agreement with the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) in DRC, including pilot projects in Somalia, South Sudan and Mali; an agreement with Norad for a new joint programme with the Norwegian women’s organisation FOKUS to strengthen the Civil National Police’s response for GBV survivors in Guatemala; along with new grants received from EuropeAid, the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and UNFPA. The GBV programme was implemented in the following countries in 2015: Angola, DR Congo, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Kenya, Laos, Malawi, Mali, Myanmar, Pakistan, Somalia, Sudan, South Africa and Tanzania.
Women’s organisations influence national legislation on GBV
Despite the shrinking space for civil society, new laws on NGOs, and restrictions to work on human rights - programme partners were able to enter into dialogue with government authorities at local and national level on women’s rights issues.
Empowerment of girls and women as rightsholders was both the aim of and the method used in this programme. Identifying role models and offering mentorship for girls and women resulted in reducing women’s fear and strengthening their ability to speak out against GBV and stop impunity. Partners increased their knowledge about existing national legislation, contributed to law enforcement, and advocated for new laws and policies to criminalise Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), child, early and forces marriages (CEFM), human trafficking, partner violence and other forms of GBV. In Myanmar, partners and staff contributed directly to the development of the first ever draft of a National Law on Protection and Prevention of Violence against Women (PoVAW), together with the Gender Equality Network (GEN). In Pakistan, the programme worked for the implementation of the Prevention of Anti-Women Practices ACT in three districts to discourage CEFM and provide girls their right to inheritance. While the passing of the Trafficking in Persons Act, 2015 in Malawi was an important achievement, there are still major challenges ahead in securing the rights of children who are trafficked. Alliances with women’s organisations, female lawyers, and other CSOs with knowledge about the status of women’s rights in their own countries were created for the purpose of advocating towards government institutions for the enforcement of laws and for providing safety and justice. An increasing number of the programmes joined the global “16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence Campaign, “Girls & not Brides”, the international day of “Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation”, and International Women’s Day. Furthermore, NCA joined ACT Alliance partners in the “Side by Side – Faith for Gender Justice” movement established in 2015, and contributed to joint statements from FBOs on sexual and reproductive health rights (SRHR) and GBV at the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) 2015.
To a large extent, the global programme achieved its goal of mobilising women and men to address harmful practices that encourage GBV, with an exception of Sudan where the government did not approve the partners’ work due to restrictions on promoting women’s rights. On a positive note, Ethiopia achieved higher results than planned when it comes to reduction of FGM.
Sensitivity from conservative and religious alliances in many countries around issues related to sexuality, gender roles and family planning influenced NCA partners’ work and hence the success of the programme. Activists and women’s human rights defenders addressing SRHR, including safe abortion, access to contraceptives, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual and intersex (LGBTI) rights, and the legal age of 18 years for girls to marry, are met with resistance. At times, even with violence. NCA and partners’ approach of creating safe spaces for dialogue with religious leaders on these issues has therefore proven to be effective in Ethiopia, Somalia, Pakistan, Kenya and South Africa. Transforming deeply rooted unequal gender power relations and harmful practices takes years and results are not always observable. Girls and women have unmet needs for medical treatment, psychosocial support, literacy, education and skills. Increased efforts to engage young men to adopt positive masculinities and respect for gender equality will improve results. GBV interventions must be comprehensive and include professional approaches. More capacity of staff and partners in applying standards, guidelines and ethical considerations when working with GBV survivors and the girl child is needed. Advocacy work towards duty bearers at all levels is crucial. Cooperation with other GBV programmes like UNFPA/UNICEF’s joint programme and the UN’s Global Protection Cluster should be intensified.
OUTCOME 1: Rights-holders are mobilised to claim their rights to a life free from gender-based violence
Achieved in most countries through many methods of mass mobilisation of people’s awareness. By using empowerment methods, capacity building and role models, girls and women knew their rights and were able to claim them.
OUTCOME 2: Faith- and community-based organisations are mobilised to prevent and reduce all forms of harmful traditional practices
Achieved in Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, South Africa, Myanmar, where FBOs and CBOs have been mobilised and use theological reflection materials. The Tamar campaign material was used in DRC, Burundi, South Sudan, Ethiopia, and Kenya.
OUTCOME 3: Faith- and community-based organisations have been influenced to transform and change beliefs, attitudes, behaviour and practices that uphold GBV
Achieved in Kenya, Zambia, Malawi and South Africa where new gender policies were developed, a Gender Transformation Toolkit “Created in God’s Image: A Gender Transformation Toolkit for Women and Men in Churches” was used and modules on masculinities and LGBTI were developed. All programmes influenced faith-based organisations and CBOs to change harmful social norms and practices.
OUTCOME 4: Duty bearers take responsibility to promote positive and transformative masculinities to overcome GBV
Achieved in South Africa where male church members promoted positive masculinities. They reached 165,000 men through the Men as Peacemakers Campaign, by discussing GBV with other them at football matches and taverns. Also achieved in Pakistan, where young men were trained to be role models for positive masculinities, and some activists prevented cases of child marriage.
OUTCOME 5: Duty bearers are influenced to implement national laws and domestications of legal frameworks preventing GBV and promoting the rights of women and girls
Achieved in Somalia, Kenya, Mali where partners influenced legislation against FGM and CEFM. In Myanmar, Kenya, and Zambia it contributed to new laws and policies. In Ethiopia, Pakistan, South Africa, Angola, Guatemala and Tanzania it actively enforced laws for girls and women’s rights.
OUTCOME 6: GBV survivors and groups at risk have access to safety and justice
Not fully achieved as access to safety and justice depend on duty bearers’ ability to provide services, and impunity still exists. In Pakistan improved referral led to more complaints brought forward. In Guatemala 500 women and girls were assisted at support centres, and Haiti saw an increase in GBV cases reported to the police and thereby breaking the cycle of silenceBack