Global Report on Results
A young boy is demonstrating right method of hand-washing in Naushero Feroze, Pakistan. Photo: Margrethe Volden/Norwegian Church Aid
Overall goal: Improved access to water and sanitation, enabling a good environment for improved hygiene for poor and marginalised communities.
In 2015, NCA ensured access to safe water for about 945,103 people and supported the establishment of 566 water committees which were trained to manage communal water schemes. This is a fundamental step towards sustainable water services. In a few countries, members have also learned negotiation skills, giving them the confidence to negotiate with local authorities and service providers. NCA secured access for 24,420 people to toilets in their own homes through community mobilisation. Such household sanitation facilities mean comfort, privacy and dignity for the female and male users. NCA also provided WASH services in schools providing 19,771 children with improved sanitation facilities, water supply and hygiene behaviour education. This was achieved through infrastructure development and the establishment of school hygiene clubs and other child-focused participatory activities. NCA also increased the knowledge and awareness of safe hygiene behaviour amongst marginalised people. All NCA focus countries’ water supply and sanitation projects were complemented with hygiene promotion activities, and in three focus countries NCA carried out more comprehensive behaviour change programmes reaching about 270,000 people. The WASH programme was implemented in the following countries in 2015: Afghanistan, Angola, Burundi, DR Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Pakistan, Somalia, South Sudan, and Sudan.
Water committees ensure fair distribution of water resources
When implementing communal WASH projects, NCA aims to both deliver a service and develop local civil society structures. Longer-term functional water infrastructures are more likely to be achieved if all the women and men in a community participate in decision-making. This is why all NCA water projects start with community mobilisation and empowerment of a WASH committee.
NCA uses different tools for community mobilisation. For example, the REFLECT method is applied in DR Congo. Results of this approach include election of a committee that represents the community and the community contributing to capital costs or a community action plan. Many communities contribute to capital costs with their labour or locally available materials, while others contribute with money. In the case of NCA’s projects in the Sindh province, Pakistan, the communities develop village development plans (153 plans in 2015) before they start to improve water supply. To ensure potential water resources or water supply conflicts are addressed early, community mobilisation processes must ensure the involvement of the whole community including women’s groups, youth and children, poor and rich, and leaders.
WASH committees play a central role in managing the water, and sometimes sanitation, infrastructure. The committee is accountable first and foremost to the community, but also to the authorities. NCA also enables water committees to demand better public services from the government. NCA’s role is to develop a process that the community can use to establish and run a committee; facilitate the formation of the committee; train the members; follow up of the committees after project completion; and sometimes to broker between committees and authorities. The committee’s task is to collect and manage water consumer fees, and organise the maintenance and repair of the infrastructure, often with local service providers, or authorities. In some countries the committee also has a role in securing environmental sanitation in the communities, such as in Angola where NCA trained 42 women and 22 men to work with household sanitation. The water committee normally has between five and ten members (up to 15 in Sudan) each with different tasks such as chairperson or treasurer. During community mobilisation and the formation of committees, NCA stresses the importance of equitable representation by women and men. In South Sudan NCA trained 54 committees with 133 men and 191 women. In cultures where gender-mixed committees are not permitted (such as in parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan), NCA encourages the establishment of separate committees for women and men. In 2015 in Pakistan, NCA facilitated a total of 100 women’s and men’s committees in two projects. Normally each water point or scheme has one committee, and in 2015 NCA has facilitated and trained 566 water committees, with about 5,000 people, in the 11 countries where we implement WASH projects.
2015 marks the completion of both NCA’s 2011-2015 strategic period and the global Millennium Development Goals. Through its WASH programme, NCA has made a small contribution towards reaching the MDGs by providing around five million people with access to water, contributing to protecting their health and promoting development.
During the 2011-2015 strategy, all NCA country WASH programmes delivered at least basic water supply services which were managed, operated and maintained by functioning water committees. All programmes also integrated essential components to enhance sustainability of the infrastructure including appropriate technology, water committees, access to spare parts and skilled mechanics.
Numerous lessons can be harvested from the last five years of implementing this global programme. Firstly, to improve health outcomes, a stronger integration of the various elements the WASH programme is needed by strengthening both the hygiene and household sanitation components. Innovative approaches, including increased engagement with the private sector and the market, will be key to this process in coming years. Secondly, sustainability of services and behaviour is increasingly critical in ensuring community and institutional resilience. NCA has gained extensive experience using practical approaches and tools to safeguard sustainability, and will continue to work with communities to utilise these and discover new ones. NCA will also develop better ways to capture lessons learned and share these within forums and with partners. The focus on building capacity of all NCA and partner staff will continue as this is key to ensuring quality results in the communities. The 2011-2015 programme has shown NCA that we still have work to do in enabling people to access improved household sanitation and adapt good hygiene behaviour. Finally, there is a need to strengthen the links between humanitarian responses and long-term interventions in WASH, because emergency responses normally necessitate rehabilitation and longer-term interventions.
OUTCOME 1: Rights-holders are mobilised to negotiate conflicting interests of fair management of vulnerable water resources
Achieved in Afghanistan and Sudan where WASH committee members and community leaders were trained in conflict resolution. In Daikundi province, Afghanistan WASH committees handled four conflicts about water distribution and the siting of tap stands.
OUTCOME 2: Rights-holders’ organisations have the capacity for management of sustainable community water supply and sanitation services
Achieved in all 11 WASH country programs by supporting the establishment and development of 566 water committees. The committees were established (under local institutional regulations and mechanisms) and members trained to manage each water point/system and communal/public sanitation infrastructure.
OUTCOME 3: Duty bearers are influenced to deliver on the right to water and sanitation services
Achieved in South Sudan, Sudan, Pakistan, Burundi, Somalia and Haiti. NCA WASH programs used their available resources and capacity to influence duty bearers through lobbying, capacity building and mobilisation. Rights-holders also learned to negotiate with duty bearers to improve WASH services.
OUTCOME 4: Achieved to varying degrees in Burundi, Somalia, Angola, Ethiopia and Haiti along with several other country programs which hadn’t chosen the outcome in their programmes. Hygiene promotion, as part of WASH in schools projects, was conducted through ‘hygiene clubs’ for children in Haiti, South Sudan, Tanzania and Burundi.
OUTCOME 5: Service providers have the capacity for accountable and inclusive WASH services delivery
Achieved in Afghanistan, South Sudan and Somalia. Under WASH projects, NCA Afghanistan and South Sudan trained decision makers and technical staff of the provincial water offices resulting in more competent local authorities.
OUTCOME 6: Rights-holders have access to adequate, appropriate, acceptable and sustainable sanitation services in public institutions and households
Achieved to varying degrees in the nine NCA WASH country programs which selected this outcome. In Burundi, Sudan, South Sudan, Haiti, Tanzania and Ethiopia, 19,771 pupils gained access to NCA constructed school toilets with handwashing facilities. In DR Congo and South Sudan, NCA constructed sanitation facilities and water supply in health institutions. NCA also worked on household sanitation in nine countries, providing approximately 24,420 people with access to toilets at home.
OUTCOME 7: Rights-holders have access to sound sustainable water supply services
Achieved in all NCA WASH country programs: Sudan, Burundi, DR Congo, Somalia, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Angola, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Haiti. About 945,000 people gained access to at least basic water service level during 2015. The establishment of the water committees has contributed to the sustainability of this service.Back