Gender-based Violence

4.1 maternal mortality ratio (per 100 000 live births) in targeted areas


Complications during pregnancy and childbirth are a leading cause of death and disability among women of reproductive age in developing countries. The maternal mortality ratio represents the risk associated with each pregnancy, i.e. the obstetric risk. It is also a SDG indicator. A maternal death (as cited in International Classification of Disease or ICD-10, [WHO, 1992]) is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and the site of the pregnancy, and can stem from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental or incidental causes.

(this guidance is based on


Baseline, endline.

Data Source

Vital registration, health service records, household surveys, census.

How to Collect

Measuring maternal mortality accurately is difficult except where comprehensive registration of deaths and of causes of death exists. Elsewhere, census, surveys or models have to be used to estimate levels of maternal mortality. Population based surveys are the primary source of information for calculating the maternal mortality ratio in many developing countries. These types of surveys include:

How to analyse

The maternal mortality ratio is calculated as:

Where data on the numbers of live births are absent, evaluators can calculate total estimated live births using census data for the total population and crude birth rates in a specified area. Total expected births = population x crude birth rate.

Dissagregate data by

Gender Age Wealth Diversity Not applicable

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